The Science Behind Sperm Donor and Recipient Matchmaking


The Gene Pool Match App harnesses the power of genomics and AI to refine the matchmaking process for sperm donors, recipients, and potential co-parents. We use the proprietary DRom 1.0 algorithm from DNA Romance LTD, which evaluates 100 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers located in genes known to play a role in immune system compatibility and human attraction and reproduction. Research shows that individuals with diverse DNA markers in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region have improved chances for successful conception and healthy offspring. This matchmaking approach matches parents with different alleles for immune system performance, resulting in more genetically diverse offspring compared to the average, thus reducing the potential for health complications..

DRom 1.0 Predicts Chemistry & Mismatches Relatives

DNA Rmance DRom1.0 Predicts Chemistry


In addition to the DRom 1.0 algorithm, DNA Romance forecasts personality compatibility using personality types derived from psychometric tests. DNA Romance also allows users to evaluate shared common interests using filters, and physical attraction based on their match’s photographs. Gene Pool's second genetic algorithm DRom 2.0 uses an Artificial Intelligence (AI) model trained with relevant DNA markers to predict phenotypic traits with high accuracy. DRom 2.0 complements Gene Pool's profile verification mechanism, which presents multiple layers of checks that help to better indicate user profile authenticity.



Personality Compatibility Rating

How Different Personality Types Interact in Relationships

Our personality compatibility rating is based on the Jung/Myers-Briggs 16 personality types. This psychometric test has a rich history of development dating back 100 years to Swiss psychiatrist Dr. Carl Jung and his book "Psychologische Typen", which translates to Psychological Types in English. This personality test was later refined by Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother Katherine Briggs. The official version of the 16 personality types test is known as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® and is used predominantly in the field of organizational psychology.
DNA Romance's personality compatibility algorithm can be used to assess personality compatibility between potential co-parents, or sperm donors and recipients. It works by assigning maximum compatibility scores for similar personality types and less compatibility with personality types that clash. This way, potential recipients can consider personality traits along with physical and genetic characteristics when choosing a sperm donor.

DNA Romance personality compatibility score

Key Research Papers

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How similarities or differences in MHC alleles can influence family planning

MHC similarity between couples is known to cause issues with family planning, here are some of the peer-reviewed papers describing the role of MHC similarity and human reproduction .

* found that sperm viability was associated with partners' HLA dissimilarity, indicating that cervical mucus may selectively facilitate later gamete fusion between immunogenetically compatible partners .

Jokiniemi A, Magris M, Ritari J, Kuusipalo L, Lundgren T, Partanen J and Kekäläinen J (2020) Post-copulatory genetic matchmaking: HLA-dependent effects of cervical mucus on human sperm function Proc Biol Sci., doi: 10.1098/rspb.2020.1682. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

* found an increased frequency of homozygosity for HLA-E*0101 in Egyptian women with RM

Mosaad YM, Abdel-Dayem Y, El-Deek BS and El-Sherbini SM (2011) Association between HLA-E *0101 homozygosity and recurrent miscarriage in Egyptian women . Scand J Immunol. 2011 Aug;74(2):205-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2011.02559.x.

* proposed a genetic-risk calculation that could predict recurrent miscarriage (RM) based on analysing HLA haplotypes from couples either with histories of successful pregnancies or RM .

Mora-Sánchez A, Aguilar-Salvador D, Nowak I (2019) Towards a gamete matching platform: using immunogenetics and artificial intelligence to predict recurrent miscarriage NPJ Digit Med Mar 7;2:12. doi: 10.1038/s41746-019-0089-x

* performed a meta-analyses of 41 studies and showed that HLA-B sharing and HLA-DR sharing were both associated with the occurrence of RM .

Meuleman T, Lashley LE, Dekkers OM, van Lith J, Claas FH and Bloemenkamp KW (2015) HLA associations and HLA sharing in recurrent miscarriage: A systematic review and meta-analysis Hum Immunol. May;76(5):362-73. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2015.02.004.

* identified differential association of alleles in HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1 when compared with reported world RSA patients .

Shankarkumar U, Pawar A, Gaonkar P, Parasannavar D, Salvi V, and Ghosh K (2008) HLA allele associations in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients from India J Hum Reprod Sci. 2008 Jan;1(1):19-24. doi: 10.4103/0974-1208.39592.

* describe the relationship between HLA similarity at individual alleles, as well as HLA haplotypes as indicators for increased risk of fetal loss among Hutterite couples .

Ober C (1999) Studies of HLA, fertility and mate choice in a human isolate . Hum Reprod Update 5(2):103-107.

* results of a 10 year study that demonstrated increased fetal loss rates among Hutterite couples matching for HLA antigens .

Ober C, Hyslop T, Elias S, Weitkamp LR, Hauck WW (1998) Human leukocyte antigen matching and fetal loss: results of a 10 year prospective study Human Reproduction, Volume 13, Issue 1, Jan 1998, Pages 33–38

* demonstrated increased rates of recurrent spontaneous abortion among Hutterite couples matching for HLA-DQA1 alleles

Ober., Steck., Ven., Billstrand., Messer., Kwak., Beaman., Beer (1993) MHC class II compatibility in aborted fetuses and term infants of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion Journal of Reproductive Immunology, Volume 25, Issue 3, December 1993, Pages 195-207

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MHC Based Attraction (aka Chemistry) and Relationship Choice

DNA Romance employs the DRom 1.0 algorithm, which analyzes Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs have been confirmed to play a significant role in genetic compatibility, which is crucial for successful sperm donations and healthier offspring. Our understanding of these SNPs and their impact comes from numerous independent studies that have studies the MHC complex and have confirmed it's role in reproductive health. We have considered these comprehensive research studies while developing DRom 1.0, aiming to provide a scientifically-sound and reliable tool for potential sperm donors and recipients..

Dandine-Roulland C, Laurent R, Dall'Ara I, Toupance B and Chaix R (2019) Genomic evidence for MHC disassortative mating in humans

Birnbaum GE, Zholtack K, Mizrahi M & Ein-Dor T (2019) The Bitter Pill: Cessation of Oral Contraceptives Enhances the Appeal of Alternative Mates Evolutionary Psychological Science volume 5, pages 276–285

Wu K, Chen C, Moyzis RK, Nuno M, Yu Z and Greenberger E (2018) More than skin deep: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-based attraction among Asian American speed-daters Evolution and Human Behavior. 39(4):447-456.

Henningsson S, Hovey D, Vass K, Walum H, Sandnabba K, Santtila P, Jern P, Westberg L (2017) A missense polymorphism in the putative pheromone receptor gene VN1R1 is associated with sociosexual behavior . Transl Psychiatry. 7(4):e1102.

Sherlock JM, Sidari MJ, Harris EA, Barlow FK, Zietsch BP (2016) Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours . Socioaffect Neurosci Psychol. 6:31562.

Kromer J, Hummel T, Pietrowski D, Giani AS, Sauter J, Ehninger G, Schmidt AH, Croy I (2016) Influence of HLA on human partnership and sexual satisfaction . Sci Rep. 6:32550.

Wlodarski R. and Dunbar RIM. (2015) What’s in a Kiss? The Effect of Romantic Kissing on Mate Desirability . Evol Psychol. ; 12(1): 178–199.

Christakis NA and Fowler JH (2014) Friendship and natural selection PNAS. 11:10796–10801.

Lie HC, Simmons LH and Rhodes G (2010) Genetic dissimilarity, genetic diversity, and mate preferences in humans . Evolution and Human Behavior 31:8–58.

Lie HC, Rhodes G and Simmons LH (2010) Is genetic diversity associated with mating success in humans ? Animal Behaviour. 79, 4:903-909

Chaix R, Cao C, and Donnelly P (2008) Is Mate Choice in Humans MHC-Dependent ? PLOS Genetics, 4 (9)

Garver-Apgar CE, Gangestad SW, Thornill R, Miller RD and Olp JJ (2006) Major histocompatibility complex alleles, sexual responsivity, and unfaithfulness in romantic couples Psychol Sci, 17(10): 830-835.

Roberts CE, Gosling LM, Carter V and Petrie M (2006) MHC-correlated odour preferences in humans and the use of oral contraceptives Proc. R. Soc. B 275, 2715–2722

Pause BM, Krauel K, Schrader C, Sojka B, Westphal E, Mu¨ller-Ruchholtz W, and Ferstl R. (2006) The human brain is a detector of chemosensorily transmitted HLA-class I-similarity in same- and opposite-sex relations Proc. R. Soc. B (2006) 273, 471–478 doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3342

Martins Y, Preti G, Crabtree CR, Runyan T, Vainius AA and Wysocki CJ (2005) Preference for Human Body Odors Is Influenced by Gender and Sexual Orientation . Psychological Science, 16(9) 694-702

Horton R, Wilming L, Rand V, Lovering RC, Bruford EA, Khodiyar VK, Lush MJ, Povey S, Talbot CC Jr, Wright MW, Wain HM, Trowsdale J, Ziegler A, Beck S (2004) Gene map of the extended human MHC. Nat Rev Genet 5(12):889-899

Jacob S, McClitock MK, Zelano B and Ober C (2002) Paternally inherited HLA alleles are associated with woman’s choice of male odour . Nature Genetics, 30:175

Milinski M and Wedekind C (2001) Evidence for MHC-correlated perfume preference in humans . Behavioural Ecology 12(2):140-149

Wedekind C and Penn D (2000) MHC genes, body odours, and odour preferences . Nephrol Dial Transplant. 15(9):1269-71

Penn DJ and Potts WK (1999) The Evolution of Mating Preferences and Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes . The American Naturalist. 153 (2) 145-164

Wedekind C, Seebeck T, Bettens F And Paepke AJ (1995) MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans. Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B. 260:245-249.

Personality online dating site

Personality Types

Our personality compatibility rating is based on the Myers-Briggs 16 personality types. This test has a long history with the development of the first 3 components dating back almost 100 years to Dr. Carl Jung and today the 4 letters and 16 personality type groups are widely known to the majority of people. DNA Romance's personality compatibility algorithm, called PC1, puts maximum weight on similar personality types and less weight towards personality types that tend to clash.

Lok C (2012) Career development: What's your type ? Nature, 488: 545-547

Keirsey, D (2006) Please Understand Me II (3rd ed) . Promethius Nemesis Book Co., Del Mar, CA.

Myers IB, McCaulley MH, Quenk NL and Hammer AL (1998) MBTI manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator . Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, Vol. 3.

Myers IB, McCaulley MH and Most R (1985) Manual, a guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.

Jung CG (1923) Psychological types: or the psychology of individuation Oxford, England: Harcourt, Brace .



We care about your privacy and have several measures in place to keep your personal data secure. We follow HIPAA privacy guidelines when handling your data and we don't sell DNA data to 3rd parties! We encrypt all data that is stored and the names contain a unique hashed path and other obfuscating elements. Access to the data is limited to key development personnel who have 2-factor authentication restricted access. You can delete your profile including DNA data at anytime from your settings dashboard. ** Again we do not sell your personal information to 3rd parties, please see our Privacy Policy for more details. On departure please do give us feedback, especially if you found a great match :-)